Pupils will be taught about:
The particulate nature of matter
- the properties of the different states of matter (solid, liquid and gas) in terms of the particle model, including gas pressure
- changes of state in terms of the particle model.
Atoms, elements and compounds
- a simple (Dalton) atomic model
- differences between atoms, elements and compounds
- chemical symbols and formulae for elements and compounds
- conservation of mass changes of state and chemical reactions.
Pure and impure substances
- the concept of a pure substance
- mixtures, including dissolving
- diffusion in terms of the particle model
- simple techniques for separating mixtures: filtration, evaporation, distillation and chromatography
- the identification of pure substances.
- chemical reactions as the rearrangement of atoms
- representing chemical reactions using formulae and using equations
- combustion, thermal decomposition, oxidation and displacement reactions
- defining acids and alkalis in terms of neutralisation reactions
- the pH scale for measuring acidity/alkalinity; and indicators
- reactions of acids with metals to produce a salt plus hydrogen
- reactions of acids with alkalis to produce a salt plus water
- what catalysts do.
- energy changes on changes of state (qualitative)
- exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions (qualitative).
The Periodic Table
- the varying physical and chemical properties of different elements
- the principles underpinning the Mendeleev Periodic Table
- the Periodic Table: periods and groups; metals and non-metals
- how patterns in reactions can be predicted with reference to the Periodic Table
- the properties of metals and non-metals
- the chemical properties of metal and non-metal oxides with respect to acidity.
- the order of metals and carbon in the reactivity series
- the use of carbon in obtaining metals from metal oxides
- properties of ceramics, polymers and composites (qualitative).
Earth and atmosphere
- the composition of the Earth
- the structure of the Earth
- the rock cycle and the formation of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks
- earth as a source of limited resources and the efficacy of recycling
- the carbon cycle
- the composition of the atmosphere
- the production of carbon dioxide by human activity and the impact on climate.