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Brampton Manor Academy

Brampton Manor Academy

Success through effort and determination
Executive Principal
Dr Dayo Olukoshi OBE

Physics

Pupils will be taught about:

Energy

Calculation of fuel uses and costs in the domestic context

  • comparing energy values of different foods (from labels) (kJ)
  • comparing power ratings of appliances in watts (W, kW)
  • comparing amounts of energy transferred (J, kJ, kW hour)
  • domestic fuel bills, fuel use and costs
  • fuels and energy resources.

Energy changes and transfers

  • simple machines give bigger force but at the expense of smaller movement (and vice versa): product of force and displacement unchanged
  • heating and thermal equilibrium: temperature difference between two objects leading to energy transfer from the hotter to the cooler one, through contact (conduction) or radiation; such transfers tending to reduce the temperature difference: use of insulators
  • other processes that involve energy transfer: changing motion, dropping an object, completing an electrical circuit, stretching a spring, metabolism of food, burning fuels.

Changes in systems

  • energy as a quantity that can be quantified and calculated; the total energy has the same value before and after a change
  • comparing the starting with the final conditions of a system and describing increases and decreases in the amounts of energy associated with movements, temperatures, changes in positions in a field, in elastic distortions and in chemical compositions
  • using physical processes and mechanisms, rather than energy, to explain the intermediate steps that bring about such changes.

Motion and forces

Describing motion

  • speed and the quantitative relationship between average speed, distance and time (speed = distance ÷ time)
  • the representation of a journey on a distance-time graph
  • relative motion: trains and cars passing one another.

Forces

  • forces as pushes or pulls, arising from the interaction between two objects
  • using force arrows in diagrams, adding forces in one dimension, balanced and unbalanced forces
  • moment as the turning effect of a force
  • forces: associated with deforming objects; stretching and squashing – springs; with rubbing and friction between surfaces, with pushing things out of the way; resistance to motion of air and water
  • forces measured in newtons, measurements of stretch or compression as force is changed
  • force-extension linear relation; Hooke’s Law as a special case
  • work done and energy changes on deformation
  • non-contact forces: gravity forces acting at a distance on Earth and in space, forces between magnets and forces due to static electricity.

Pressure in fluids

  • atmospheric pressure, decreases with increase of height as weight of air above decreases with height
  • pressure in liquids, increasing with depth; upthrust effects, floating and sinking
  • pressure measured by ratio of force over area – acting normal to any surface.

Balanced forces

  • opposing forces and equilibrium: weight held by stretched spring or supported on a compressed surface.

Forces and motion

  • forces being needed to cause objects to stop or start moving, or to change their speed or direction of motion (qualitative only)
  • change depending on direction of force and its size.

Waves

Observed waves

  • waves on water as undulations which travel through water with transverse motion; these waves can be reflected, and add or cancel – superposition.

Sound waves

  • frequencies of sound waves, measured in hertz (Hz); echoes, reflection and absorption of sound
  • sound needs a medium to travel, the speed of sound in air, in water, in solids
  • sound produced by vibrations of objects, in loud speakers, detected by their effects on microphone diaphragm and the ear drum; sound waves are longitudinal
  • auditory range of humans and animals.

Energy and waves

  • pressure waves transferring energy; use for cleaning and physiotherapy by ultra-sound; waves transferring information for conversion to electrical signals by microphone.

Light waves

  • the similarities and differences between light waves and waves in matter
  • light waves travelling through a vacuum; speed of light
  • the transmission of light through materials: absorption, diffuse scattering and specular reflection at a surface
  • use of ray model to explain imaging in mirrors, the pinhole camera, the refraction of light and action of convex lens in focusing (qualitative); the human eye
  • light transferring energy from source to absorber leading to chemical and electrical effects; photo-sensitive material in the retina and in cameras
  • colours and the different frequencies of light, white light and prisms (qualitative only); differential colour effects in absorption and diffuse reflection.

Electricity and electromagnetism

Current electricity

  • electric current, measured in amperes, in circuits, series and parallel circuits, currents add where branches meet and current as flow of charge
  • potential difference, measured in volts, battery and bulb ratings; resistance, measured in ohms, as the ratio of potential difference (p.d.) to current
  • differences in resistance between conducting and insulating components (quantitative).

Static electricity

  • separation of positive or negative charges when objects are rubbed together: transfer of electrons, forces between charged objects
  • the idea of electric field, forces acting across the space between objects not in contact.

Magnetism

  • magnetic poles, attraction and repulsion
  • magnetic fields by plotting with compass, representation by field lines
  • earth’s magnetism, compass and navigation
  • the magnetic effect of a current, electromagnets, D.C. motors (principles only).

Matter

Physical changes

  • conservation of material and of mass, and reversibility, in melting, freezing, evaporation, sublimation, condensation, dissolving
  • similarities and differences, including density differences, between solids, liquids and gases
  • Brownian motion in gases
  • diffusion in liquids and gases driven by differences in concentration
  • the difference between chemical and physical changes.

Particle model

  • the differences in arrangements, in motion and in closeness of particles explaining changes of state, shape and density, the anomaly of ice-water transition
  • atoms and molecules as particles.

Energy in matter

  • changes with temperature in motion and spacing of particles
  • internal energy stored in materials.

Space physics

  • gravity force, weight = mass x gravitational field strength (g), on Earth g=10 N/kg, different on other planets and stars; gravity forces between Earth and Moon, and between Earth and Sun (qualitative only)
  • our Sun as a star, other stars in our galaxy, other galaxies
  • the seasons and the Earth’s tilt, day length at different times of year, in different hemispheres
  • the light year as a unit of astronomical distance.